Political Prisoners were characters who appeared in Batman: Arkham City.
The Political Prisoners were people that Hugo Strange had TYGER Security arrest for objecting to the construction of Arkham City or for trying to learn too much it. Jack Ryder and Bruce Wayne were examples of that.
That could also extend into less dangerous criminals like Jimmy Briggs as their crimes did not fit the punishment of Arkham City and were at the mercy of the more hardcore criminals. They were there due to the rule that all inmates must be incarcerated in Arkham City. There were also some Political Prisoners who deliberately got themselves incarcerated in order to covertly find out the circumstances of Arkham City, as evidenced by the ten Undercover GCPD Officers.
In the game, Batman has Side Missions in Most Wanted where he saved those Political Prisoners from being harmed by the other inmates. It was called "Acts of Violence."